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  Salamanders  

Department of Natural Resources
Illinois
----------------------

Salamander
s

Introduction | Agency Resources |Anatomy |Bibliography | Conservation | Defense | Salamander Facts | Species List | Gallery | Life History |

Glossary

aestivate
to be inactive in response to summer heat or scarcity of water
cirrus; cirri (pl.)
slender elongations of the upper lip on some male salamanders, one hanging below each nostril at the bottom of the nasolabial groove
cloaca
common passage or cavity of the digestive, reproductive, and excretory systems
cloacal glands
glands in the wall of the cloaca that function during reproduction
costal grooves
vertical creases on the outside body wall that correspond in location and number to the ribs
courtship
pattern of behavioral interactions between males and females during reproduction
direct development
development in terrestrial salamanders in which the hatchling resembles the adult in body form; no larval stage occurs
eft
immature terrestrial juvenile of the eastern newt
endangered species
a species in danger of becoming extinct within all or part of its range
extirpate
to exterminate from a part of a species' range
fragmentation
division into smaller sections that often have no connections
juvenile
individual that has not attained sexual maturity
larva; larvae (pl.)
aquatic, gilled, immature salamander
mental gland
cluster of glands on the chin of a male salamander, most noticeable during the breeding season
mucous (adj.); mucus (n.)
clear, watery, glandular secretion that covers the skin and keeps it moist
nasolabial grooves
in lungless salamanders, tiny grooves that extend from the nostrils to the lower edge of the upper lip, and onto the cirri if they are present
respiration (n.);
respiratory (adj.)
exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between an organism and the atmosphere
secondary sexual features
characteristics expressed during the breeding season, such as enlarged mental glands, cloacal glands, and cirri in male salamanders
siltation
deposition of fine mineral particles (silt) on the beds of streams or lakes
spermatophore
small sperm-bearing structure produced in the male's cloaca and attached to some object or surface outside the body during courtship; used to make sperm available to the female
terrestrial
land-based, or living on land
tetrodotoxin
a chemical found in the skin of newts, it causes vomiting and may cause paralysis
threatened species
a species likely to become endangered
transform
in salamanders, to change from the larval form to the terrestrial form, which involves absorption of the gills and tail fin, and other changes
triploid
having three sets of chromosomes per cell instead of the usual two sets

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