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  Family Cyprinidae  

Family Cyprinidae--Minnow Family

Minnows have pelvic fins located in the abdominal region instead of on the sides of the fish and only one dorsal fin. Cycloid scales are present on the body but not the head. They have no teeth in the mouth, but teeth are present on a bone in the throat. Minnows tend to be found in streams. The breeding males of many minnow species are brightly colored and may have bumps called breeding tubercles scattered over various body parts. The bluntnose and fathead minnows are two of the few minnow species to exhibit parental care. Some minnows are carnivores; others are herbivores; still others are omnivores.

central stoneroller--Campostoma anomalum
largescale stoneroller--Campostoma oligolepis
goldfish--Carassius auratus [nonnative]
lake chub--Couesius plumbeus
grass carp--Ctenopharyngodon idella [nonnative]
red shiner--Cyprinella lutrensis
spotfin shiner--Cyprinella spiloptera
blacktail shiner--Cyprinella venusta

steelcolor shiner -- Cyprinella whipplei
The steelcolor shiner commonly reaches a length of two and one-half to four and one-half inches but may exceed six inches. It is a fish of rocky and sandy bottoms of creeks and medium to small rivers. It lives in schools and feeds on insects and other animal material that it captures at the surface or in mid-water. Spawning occurs from late May through mid-August. Individual males rarely live more than three years while females may live four years. Maturity usually occurs in the third year of life.

common carp -- Cyprimus carpio[nonnative]
The carp has a saw-toothed spine at the front of both the dorsal and anal fins. It has two barbels on each side of the mouth. Adults typically reach 12-25 inches in length and one to eight pounds, but individuals may reach four feet in length and over 80 pounds. The carp is a native of Asia that was introduced into the United States in the late 1800s. It is found in all waters statewide. This fish feeds on the bottom in early morning or late evening eating a variety of plant and animal material, although insects make up a majority of the diet. Spawning occurs from April through August. The eggs are dispersed at random over the bottom, and no parental care is given. The life span is typically eight to fifteen years with maturity reached in two to three years.

silverjaw minnow--Ericymba buccata

gravel chub -- Erimystax x-punctatus
The gravel chub has scattered x-shaped markings over its back and sides. A small barbel is located in each corner of the mouth. It lives in streams with a slight to moderate current and a silt-free gravel or rock bottom. This fish, which may reach slightly over four inches in length, lives on or near the bottom, hiding and feeding around rocks. It is an omnivore. Spawning occurs in the spring.

western silvery minnow--Hybognathus argyritis
brassy minnow--Hybognathus hankinsoni
cypress minnow--Hybognathus hayi [state endangered]
Mississippi silvery minnow--Hybognathus nuchalis
plains minnow--Hybognathus placitus
bigeye chub--Hybopsis amblops [state endangered]
pallid shiner--Hybopsis amnis [state endangered]
silver carp--Hypophthalmichthys molitrix [nonnative]
bighead carp--Hypophthalmichthys nobilis [nonnative]
striped shiner--Luxilus chrysocephalus
common shiner--Luxilus cornutus
rosefin shiner--Lythrurus fasciolaris [extirpated]
ribbon shiner--Lythrurus fumeus
redfin shiner--Lythrurus umbratilis
speckled chub--Macrhybopsis hyostoma
sturgeon chub--Macrhybopsis gelida [state endangered]
sicklefin chub--Macrhybopsis meeki
silver chub--Macrhybopsis storeriana
hornyhead chub--Nocomis biguttatus
river chub--Nocomis micropogon [state endangered]
golden shiner--Notemigonus crysoleucas
pugnose shiner--Notropis anogenus [state endangered]
emerald shiner-- Notropis atherinoides
river shiner--Notropis blennius
bigeye shiner--Notropis boops [state endangered]
ghost shiner--Notropis buchanani
ironcolor shiner--Notropis chalybaeus [state threatened]
bigmouth shiner--Notropis dorsalis
blackchin shiner--Notropis heterodon [state threatened]
blacknose shiner--Notropis heterolepis [state endangered]
spottail shiner--Notropis hudsonius
taillight shiner--Notropis maculatus [state endangered]
Ozark minnow--Notropis nubilus
rosyface shiner--Notropis rubellus
silverband shiner--Notropis shumardi
sand shiner--Notropis stramineus
weed shiner--Notropis texanus [state endangered]
mimic shiner--Notropis volucellus
channel shiner--Notropis wickliffi
pugnose minnow--Opsopoeodus emiliae
suckermouth minnow--Phenacobius mirabilis

southern redbelly dance -- Phoxinus erythrogaster
This small (about three and one-half inches long), slender minnow has two dusky stripes along the side, separated by a broader light stripe. Scales are very small, and the lateral line is incomplete. This fish lives in small creeks or in pools away from the main channel in larger streams. The dace lives in schools, often in association with stonerollers and creek chubs, and feeds on plants and plankton. It usually lives near the stream bottom. Spawning occurs from May through July. Maturity is attained during the second year with a life span of three to four years.

bluntnose minnow--Pimephales notatus
fathead minnow--Pimephales promelas

The fathead minnow (about four inches in length) has rounded fins and a blunt, rounded snout. The midline of the back has a definite dark stripe. There is a dark spot at the base of the tail fin. The fish lives in schools in streams and is tolerant of conditions which would be adverse for many other fish species. In streams, it is found in mid-water or near the bottom where it feeds on algae, aquatic insects and decaying organic matter. Spawning occurs from mid-May to August. It deposits the eggs on submerged objects and stays with them. A female may spawn 12 or more times in a single summer and produce 4,000-5,000 offspring. The maximum life span appears to be three years with maturity reached in the first year.

bullhead minnow--Pimephales vigilax
flathead chub--Platygobio gracilis
bluehead shiner--Pteronotropis hubbsi [state endangered]
blacknose dace--Rhinichthys atratulus
longnose dace--Rhinichthys cataractae
rudd--Scardinius erythrophthalmus [nonnative]
creek chub--Semotilus atromaculatus

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