Federal Noxious Weed Inspection Guide. USDA APHIS PPQ. Prepared by Randy Westbrooks, Whiteville, NC. September 1991.
Other than the following species:
C. americana L., C. applanta Engelmann, C. approximata Babington, C. attenuata Waterfall,C. boldinghii Urban, C. brachycalyz (Yuncher) Yuncker, C. californica Hooker ex Engelmann, C. cassytoides Nees ex Engelmann, C. ceanothii Behr, C. cephalanthii Engelmann, C. compacta Jussieu, C. corylii Engelmann, C. cuspidata Engelmann, C. cupulata Engelmann, C. decipiens Yuncker, C. dentasquamata Yuncker, C. denticulata Engelmann, C. epilinum Weihe, C. epithymum (L.) L., C. erosa Yuncker, C. eruopaea L., C. exalta Engelmann, C. fasciculata Yuncker, C. glabior (Engelmann) Yuncker, C. globulosa Bentham, C. gronovii Willdenow, C. harperi Small, C. howelliana Rubtzoff, C. indecora Choisy, C. jepsonii Yuncker, C. leptantha Engelmann, C. mitriformis Engelmann, C. nevadensis I.M. Johnson, C. obtusifolia Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth, C. occidentalis Millspaugh ex Mill & Nuttall, C. odontolepis Engelmann, C. pentagona Englemann [= C. campestris Yuncker], C. planiflora Tenore, C. plattensis A. Nelson, C. polygonorum Engelmann, C. rostrata Shuttleworth ex Engelmann, C. runyonii Yuncker, C. salina Engelmann, C. sandwichiana Choisy, C. squamata Engelmann, C. suaveolens Seringe, C. suksdorfii Yuncker, C. tuberculata Brandegee, C. umbellata Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth, C. umbrosa Beyrich ex Hooker, C. vetchii Brandegee, C. warneri Yuncker
Diagnostic Characteristics: An orange-yellow, herbaceous stem parasite without chlorophyll; sometimes branched, forming dense masses over the host plant; developing haustoria (suckers) that penetrate the host plants and extract nutrients and water; the leaves are reduced to minute scales and are non-functional; inflorescence, small, axillary clusters of white yellow or red flowers; fruits a round, 2-celled, 4-seeded capsule; reproduction is by seeds; spread is vegetative.
Basis as a Federal Noxious Weed: Reduces vigor of dicots by extracting nutrients (Anonymous, 1981a).
Habitat: Cultivated crops, perennial crops, pastures, trees, ditchbanks, roadsides (Cardenas et al., 1972.)
World Distribution: Afghanistan, Argentina, Brazil, Chile, China, Czechoslovakia, Egypt, France, Germany, Hungary, India, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Italy, Japan, Lebanon, Mauritius, Morocco, Netherlands, Pakistan, Romania, South Africa, Soviet Union, Spain, Sudan, Turkey, Yugoslavia, Zimbabwe. (This listing includes the distribution of all Cuscuta species in Holm et al., 1979, that are not known to occur in the United States.)
(All species of parasitic plants that are determined to be harmful are prohibited entry into the Untied States under the Federal Plant Pest Act of 1957.)
Knepper et al. (1990) developed a classification system for identifying 12 important species of dodder that are often intercepted as contaminants in imported commercial seed shipments. The system is based on seed coat topography.
Plant Parts Likely to be Intercepted: Seeds, capsules.
Suggested Avenues of Entry into The United States: As a contaminant of seed shipments; spices, baggage, straw.
Important Literature References:
Cardenas et al., 1972; Dawson et al., 1984; Dassanayake, 1980; Kuijt, 1969; Knepper et al., 1990.
Cardenas, J., C. Reyes and j. Doll. 1972. Tropical Weeds. Malezas Tropicales. Vol. 1. Colombian Agr. Inst. Bogata, Colombia. 341 pp.
Dawson, J., F. Ashton, W. Velker, J. Frank and G. Buchanan. 1984. Dodder and its control. U.S. Dept. Agr. Farmer's Bull. 2276. 24 pp.
Dassanayake, M. (ed.). 1980. A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon. Volume I. Amerind Publishing Co. New Dehli, India. 508 pp.
Kuijt, J. 1969. The Biology of Parasitic Flowering Plants. Univ. of California Press. Berkeley and Los Angeles. 246 pp.
Knepper, D., R. Creager, and L. Musselman. 1990. Identifying dodder seed as contaminants in seed shipments. Seed Sci. & Technol. 18:731-741.
|Bargeron, C.T., D.J. Moorhead, G.K. Douce, R.C. Reardon & A.E. Miller |
(Tech. Coordinators). 2003. Invasive Plants of the Eastern U.S.:
Identification and Control. USDA Forest Service - Forest Health
Technology Enterprise Team. Morgantown, WV USA. FHTET-2003-08.