Application Methods for Recommended Herbicide Treatments
Foliar applications should be made with a low pressure (20-50 psi) backpack sprayer at rates of one gallon or less per minute. All foliar treatments should be made after full leaf expansion in the spring and before fall colors are visible. Allow herbicide treatments to dry for at least three hours at an air temperature above 60°F to ensure adequate absorption and translocation. In areas that receive significant public use, it may be necessary to close off the treatment area until the herbicide has completely dried.
Use a nonionic surfactant with all herbicide solutions, unless otherwise specified by the manufacturer's label. Surfactants increase the effectiveness of the herbicide by 1) reducing surface tension and ensuring complete foliar coverage, and 2) increasing the rate of absorption through the leaf cuticle.
Apply herbicide with a backpack or similar hand-operated pump sprayer equipped with a flat spray tip or adjustable cone nozzle. Apply herbicide to the leaves and stems of target plants using a consistent back and forth motion. Herbicide should thoroughly cover foliage, but not to the point of run-off. All recommended herbicides require complete foliar coverage to be effective. Applications made while walking backward will reduce the risk of the herbicide wicking onto the applicator's clothing.
Cut Surface Treatments
Cut surface treatments include hack and squirt, girdle, and cut stump methods. The main advantages to these methods are: 1) they are very economical, 2) there is minimal probability of non-target damage, 3) minimal application time, and 4) they can be used in the winter as long as the ground is not frozen. Backpack sprayers or spray bottles are very effective for all of these methods.
Hack and Squirt Method: Using an axe or similar cutting tool, make uniformly spaced cuts around the base of the stem. The cuts should angle downward, be less than 2.5 cm (1 in) apart, and extend into the sapwood. Apply herbicide to each cut to the point of over flow.
Frill Method: Using an axe or similar cutting tool, make continuous cuts around the base of the stem. The cuts should angle downward, be less than 2.5 cm (1 in) apart, and extend into the sapwood. Apply the recommended herbicide to the entire cut area to the point of over flow.
Cut Stump Method: Horizontally cut stems at or near ground level; all cuts should be level, smooth, and free of debris. Immediately apply the herbicide to the outer 20% (cambial area) of the stump; delayed treatment may reduce the effectiveness of treatment.
Basal Bark Treatments
Basal bark treatments are effective for controlling woody vines, shrubs, and trees. Treatments can be made any time of year, including the winter months, except when snow or water prevent spraying the basal parts of the stem. Proper plant identification is crucial during the dormant season due to the absence of foliage.
Apply herbicide with a backpack sprayer using low pressure (20-40 psi) with a straight stream or flat fan tip. To control vegetation with a basal stem diameter of less than 7.6 cm (3.0 in) apply specified herbicide-oil mixture on one side of the basal stem to a height of 15.25 cm (6 in) from the base. Apply herbicide to the point of run-off; within an hour mixture should almost encircle the stem. For stems greater than 7.6 cm (3.0 in) basal diameter or with thick bark, treat both sides of the stem to a basal height of 30.5 cm (12 in) to 61 cm (24 in).
All herbicides should be applied in accordance with specific label instructions, which include personal protective equipment and storage requirements.
|Bargeron, C.T., D.J. Moorhead, G.K. Douce, R.C. Reardon & A.E. Miller |
(Tech. Coordinators). 2003. Invasive Plants of the Eastern U.S.:
Identification and Control. USDA Forest Service - Forest Health
Technology Enterprise Team. Morgantown, WV USA. FHTET-2003-08.