The Bugwood Network

Invasive Plants of the Eastern United States:
Identification and Control

cover image

Technical Coordinators:
Charles T. Bargeron, David J. Moorhead, G. Keith Douce,
Richard C. Reardon and Arthur E. Miller

The University of Georgia, USDA APHIS PPQ and USDA Forest Service
Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team. FHTET-2003-08

A biological invasion of non-native plants is spreading into our nations' fields, pastures, forests, wetlands and waterways, natural areas, and right-of-ways. Variously referred to as exotic, nonnative, alien, noxious, or non-indigenous weeds, invasive plants impact native plant and animal communities by displacing native vegetation and disrupting habitats as they become established and spread over time.

Drawing on recent publications by the USDA Forest Service, National Park Service, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, USDA APHIS PPQ and the Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council, this CD-ROM covers identification characteristics, distribution, and control options for 97 tree, shrub, vine, grass, fern, forb, and aquatic plant species that are invading the eastern United States. For each species, a menu of control options is presented, including mechanical treatments, specific herbicide prescriptions, and, for selected species, recent advances in biological control.

While this is not an official list of "invasive" plants throughout the eastern United States, it includes Federal Noxious Weeds and those listed by State regulatory agencies, pest plant councils and other organizations. Some of the plants on this list are often found in ornamental plantings and landscapes. In fact, many non-native plants introduced for horticultural and agricultural use now pose a serious ecological threat in the absence of their natural predators and control agents. This publication will aid landowners, foresters, resource managers, and the general public in becoming familiar with invasive plants in their area to help protect our environment from the economic and ecological impacts of these biological pollutants.

www.invasive.org

Images and Information on Invasive/Exotic Plants,
Insects, Diseases and Biocontrol Agents

USDA Forest ServiceUSDA APHIS PPQThe Bugwood NetworkUniversity of GeorgiaNPS and USFWSSE-EPPC



Aquatic Forbs
alligatorweed Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb.
waterhyacinth Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms
hydrilla Hydrilla verticillata (L. f.) Royle
parrot feather watermilfoil Myriophyllum aquaticum (Vell.) Verdc.
Eurasian watermilfoil Myriophyllum spicatum L.
waterlettuce Pistia stratiotes L.
giant salvinia Salvinia molesta D. S. Mitchell
water chestnut Trapa natans L.

Ferns
Japanese climbing fern Lygodium japonicum (Thunb. ex Murr.) Sw.
old world climbing fern Lygodium microphyllum (Cav.) R. Br.

Forbs
garlic mustard Alliaria petiolata (Bieb.) Cavara & Grande
plumeless thistle Carduus acanthoides L.
musk thistle Carduus nutans L.
winged plumeless thistle Carduus tenuiflorus W. Curtis
spotted knapweed Centaurea biebersteinii DC
Canada thistle Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop.
bull thistle Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten.
tropical spiderwortCommelina benghalensis L.
cypress spurge Euphorbia cyparissias L.
leafy spurge Euphorbia esula L.
goatsrue Galega officinalis L.
orange daylily Hemerocallis fulva (L.) L.
giant hogweed Heracleum mantegazzianum Sommier & Levier
shrubby lespedeza Lespedeza bicolor Turcz.
Chinese lespedeza Lespedeza cuneata (Dum.-Cours.) G. Don
purple loosestrife Lythrum salicaria L.
marsh dewflower Murdannia keisak (Hassk.) Hand.-Maz.
small broomrape Orobanche minor Sm.
Japanese knotweed Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. & Zucc.
lesser Celandine Ranunculus ficaria L.
wetland nightshade Solanum tampicense Dunal
turkeyberry Solanum torvum Swartz
tropical soda apple Solanum viarum Dunal
Asiatic witchweed Striga asiatica (L.) Kuntze
coltsfoot Tussilago farfara L.

Grass/Grasslike
giant reed Arundo donax L.
deeprooted sedge Cyperus entrerianus Boeck.
cogongrass Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.
tall fescue Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) S.J. Darbyshire
Nepalese browntop Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) A. Camus
Chinese silvergrass Miscanthus sinensis Anderss.
common reed Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud.
golden bamboo Phyllostachys aurea Carr. ex A.& C. Rivière
itchgrass Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) W.D. Clayton
Johnsongrass Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.

Shrubs
Japanese barberry Berberis thunbergii DC.
butterflybush Buddleja spp. L.
thorny olive Elaeagnus pungens Thunb.
autumn olive Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb.
winged burning bush Euonymus alata (Thunb.) Sieb.
Japanese privet Ligustrum japonicum Thunb.
glossy privet Ligustrum lucidum Ait. f.
Chinese privet Ligustrum sinense Lour.
European privet Ligustrum vulgare L.
sweet breath of spring Lonicera fragrantissima Lindl. & Paxton
Amur honeysuckle Lonicera maackii (Rupr.) Herder
Morrow's honeysuckle Lonicera morrowii Gray
Tatarian honeysuckle Lonicera tatarica L.
sacred bamboo Nandina domestica Thunb.
jetbead Rhodotypos scandens (Thunb.) Makino
Macartney rose Rosa bracteata J.C. Wendl.
multiflora rose Rosa multiflora Thunb. ex Murr.
wine raspberry Rubus phoenicolasius Maxim.
Japanese spiraea Spiraea japonica L. f.

Trees
Norway maple Acer platanoides L.
tree of heaven Ailanthus altissima (P. Mill.) Swingle
mimosa Albizia julibrissin Durazz.
paper mulberry Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) L'Hér. ex Vent.
Russian olive Elaeagnus angustifolia L.
melaleuca Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) Blake
chinaberrytree Melia azedarach L.
white mulberry Morus alba L.
princesstree Paulownia tomentosa (Thunb.) Sieb. & Zucc. ex Steud.
Bradford pear Pyrus calleryana 'Bradford'
sawtooth oak Quercus acutissima Carruthers
Brazilian peppertree Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi
tallow tree Triadica sebifera (L.) Small
Siberian elmUlmus pumila L.

Vines
fiveleaf akebia Akebia quinata (Houtt.) Dcne.
Amur peppervine Ampelopsis brevipedunculata (Maxim.) Trautv.
oriental bittersweet Celastrus orbiculata Thunb.
purple crownvetch Coronilla varia L.
Japanese dodder Cuscuta japonica Choisy
swallow-worts Cynanchum spp. L.
water yam Dioscorea alata L.
air yam Dioscorea bulbifera L.
Chinese yam Dioscorea oppositifolia L.
winter creeper Euonymus fortunei (Turcz.) Hand.-Maz.
English ivy Hedera helix L.
Japanese honeysuckle Lonicera japonica Thunb.
skunk vine Paederia foetida L.
mile-a-minute weed Polygonum perfoliatum L.
kudzu Pueraria montana (Lour.) Merr.
bigleaf periwinkle Vinca major L.
common periwinkle Vinca minor L.
Chinese wisteria Wisteria sinensis (Sims) DC.
Japanese Wisteria Wisteria floribunda (Willd.) DC..

Publications
Nonnative Invasive Plants of Southern Forests - USDA Forest Service
Biological Control of Invasive Plants in the Eastern United States - USDA Forest Service
Plant Invaders of Mid-Atlantic Natural Areas - National Park Service and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council Invasive Plant Manual - SE-EPPC

Project Information
Acknowledgments
Photographers
Use of Images
Web sites of Interest

line
USDA Forest Service USDA APHIS PPQ The Bugwood Network University of Georgia Bargeron, C.T., D.J. Moorhead, G.K. Douce, R.C. Reardon & A.E. Miller
(Tech. Coordinators). 2003. Invasive Plants of the Eastern U.S.:
Identification and Control. USDA Forest Service - Forest Health
Technology Enterprise Team. Morgantown, WV USA. FHTET-2003-08.